Michalis A. Menicou

Assistant Professor

List of Research Projects

  1. 2012 – 2015: EracoBuild. (Cyprus Participation: Research Promotion Foundation). Total Funding: around € 875,772.  

Title: The Square Mile Retrofit Project
Role: Principal Investigator in economic analysis of alternative retrofit approaches

Project Partners:

As 75% of the housing stock is set to still be with us in 2050, the priority must be to retrofit existing dwellings to become more energy efficient. Traditionally, the focus has been on improving the standards of new-build housing, through policies stipulating building regulations and targets to have zero carbon homes by 2016. However this is changing, and with the introduction of the Green Deal, retrofitting existing dwellings is and will continue to be more common, despite being extremely challenging, both methodologically and financially.

Current approaches for retrofitting housing are often not targeted at the address level and as such are delivered inefficiently. Retrofit schemes are run blind based on incomplete and non-representative data. This is ultimately due to a lack and fragmentation of data on housing stocks and a disconnect between data and delivery, with very little focus placed on community level engagement.

Parity Projects’ role in the Eracobuild project seeks to explore this issue, by taking three square mile areas to identify and test the various data collection approaches and analysis, resulting effectively in three case studies to demonstrate different retrofit strategy delivery models. The project has therefore been called ‘The Square Mile Project’.

Partners in Cyprus will take the outputs developed in stage one and apply it in a range of economic circumstances such as occupant wealth, local contractor skills and prices, projected energy prices, and preferred financial arrangements. The project will seek to incorporate whole-life consideration into the model.

Cypriot colleagues will then also focus on certain technologies which succeed technically but fail financially in order to make recommendations for the more widespread application in whole-house approaches.

Partners in Greece will also take the outputs from stage one and the three square miles and apply a variety of climatic circumstances. They will test its limitations and enhance its capabilities to provide appropriate technological recommendations across Europe. In light of this, further work will be done to address adaptation of buildings due to climate change.

  1. 2011 – 2013: Research Promotion Foundation. Total Funding: €180,000.

Title: A smart feed management data tool for Cyprus’ offshore aquaculture industry with the aid of a stand alone renewable energy system.
Role: Project Coordinator

Project Partners:
(a) Frederick Research Centre (Coordinator) (Cyprus),
(b) Center of Renewable Energy Sources (Greece),
(c) Seawave Fisheries (Cyprus).

European and National policies encourage increase of offshore aquaculture sector as a means to provide healthy seafood at affordable prices. However, realisation of this policy presupposes larger offshore installations, placed even further from shore. Efficient operation of these installations need significant automation applied to feeding systems and monitoring, having substantial energy requirements. In the case of offshore aquaculture installations, positioned significantly away from shore, energy generation has to take place on sites. To this end, the aim of this research project was to develop a smart feed management data tool for Cyprus’ offshore aquaculture industry, powered by a stand-alone renewable energy system. 

To meet this aim a consortium of three organisations was setup, consisting of a Cypriot research performer (FRC), an overseas research performer (CRES), and a Cypriot offshore aquaculture company (Seawave).   

The general objectives can be identified into increasing competitiveness of Cyprus’ offshore aquaculture industry by (a) utilising state-of the-art engineering applications, (b) developing a stand-alone power generation, storage and usage system in offshore installations, enabling considerable autonomy and automation and (c) using engineering design principles to develop engineering parts able to withstand offshore dynamic loading. In addition, sensor, renewable energy, engineering design and industrial management technologies are combined to provide competitive advantage. Finally, cooperation of Cyprus’ offshore aquaculture industry and RTD performers is promoted, improving the Industry’s competitiveness.

The scientific and technological objectives can be identified into the following: (a) determine environmental parameters affecting feeding behaviour of cultured fish stock; (b) develop a feed management data gathering and data administration tool; (c) assess anticipated energy needs, determine renewable potential (wind and solar), and develop a stand-alone offshore renewable energy system; (d) determine environmental loading parameters, develop specifications of the housing supporting system and propose alternative engineering design solutions; (e) develop an onshore data receiving and data administration system; (f) construct and interconnect the various systems’ parts; and (g) conduct a thorough cost-benefit analysis of the proposed tool.      

  1. 2011 – 2013: Research Promotion Foundation. Total Funding: €150,000.

Title: Operational Risk Management Tool (for the Banking Sector).
Role: Frederick Team Scientific Coordinator.

Project Partners:
(a) Synectics Ltd (Coordinator) (Cyprus),
(b) Frederick Research Center (Cyprus),
(c) Cyprus Association of Commercial Banks (Cyprus).


Surveys have shown that in contrast to the European and Global scene, the scientific discipline of Operational Risk Management (ORM) for both SMEs and the Medium Size Credit and Financial Institutions in the Greek-speaking world is still at an early stage. This fact, combined with regulatory standards and strict policies laid down by the Supervisory Authorities, the European Union and Local Authorities, demanding more and to a greater extent Enterprise evidence of measures and safeguards which take to ensure their viability and also to increase their competitiveness, have led to the need to implement this project.

The aim of the project was the extensive study of various models, international practices and operational risk management (ORM) tools, study and analysis of the Cyprus market and comparison with European proceedings of culminating the development of an innovative, pioneering and robust product for optimal ΟΡΜ now suitable for Cyprus’ Enterprises.

This product consists of a highly parameterized software system, applicable to any size of company and activity sector, strictly practical form and utility, which is designed to help our Country’s Companies in the increase but also to show through correct ORM their sustainability. More specifically, the product allows the recording, measuring, monitoring and effective management of operational risks (ORs), and it is accompanied by service automation features that assist system users in deciding the proper and timely response to potential ORs, while providing the ability to export reports and statistical analyzes with an overall aim of providing and disseminating knowledge about the field of operational risk, at both local and European level.

The Consortium is composed of the Cyprus Association of Commercial Banks, ensuring excellent knowledge of existing practices and needs, “Synectics” Ltd a prominent software development company for the financial sector of the country, supported by the unique team of the Country that deals with “Production and Operations Management” at Frederick Research Centre, coupled with two experts of the European Central Bank.

Project realisation led to the combination of research knowledge and practical experience in the form of a product, and allowed Enterprises to realise that ORM must not be an innate administrative option but an operational threat and that the use of automated tools such as the new ORM System provides opportunities to improve the efficiency and utilization of existing resources. It also provided a competitive edge to the Host Organisation (HO) helping it develop the requested features for further development and promotion of new products in the field of ORM, an area now enjoys growth in the Cyprus market.

  1. 2009 – 2011:  CORNET/ 2008/ 01 (Cyprus Participation: Research Promotion Foundation). Total Funding: € 576,673.

Title: Development of a Real Time Quality Support System for the Houses Construction Industry in Germany, Netherlands and Cyprus.
Role: Cyprus Team Scientific Coordinator

Project Partners:
(a) Federation for Quality Research & Science (FQS) (Coordinator) (Germany),
(b) Bouwend Nederland (BNL), (Netherlands),
(c) Cyprus Association for Quality (CyAQ), (Cyprus),
(d) Universität Stuttgart, (Germany)
(e) Frederick Institute of Technology (FIT), (Cyprus)
(f) Synectics Ltd. (SYN), (Cyprus)
(g) Delft University of Technology (DUT) (Netherlands).
Cyprus SMEs:
(a) LOIS Builders Ltd,
(b) Ayios Andronicos Development Co. Ltd of Manglis Group,
(c) TOFARCO Ltd,
(d) G.S.K Herodotou Developers Ltd,
(e) Pantelis Michael & Sons (Builders) Ltd

The main goal of the QuCON Project was to develop a real-time quality assurance tool suitable for the houses Construction Industry by investigating and analysing the different construction models, construction processes, parameters and standards, as also related quality parameters, standards and requirements.

During the realisation of the project the Cyprus Team jointed its efforts with the German Team in order to complete all the tasks outlined in the submitted proposal. Completed tasks include the analysis and recording of the existing construction processes through a series of meetings and interviews of User Committee (UC) members and the answer of a questionnaire; analysis of international construction standards and quality assurance standards; analysis of available quality criteria, parameters as well as quality assurance indexes; recording of critical quality parameters and assurance indexes; definition of a generic processes inherent quality model and its respective parameters; development of two country specific business construction models; development of quality measurement and analysis methods; creation of mathematical algorithms for calculate quality assurance in real time; development of two country specific quality checklists;  development of a prototype software tool for the quality assurance of construction housing projects in real time; development of an optimisation model and execution of a number or experiments; interpretation of experiments results and creation of optimisation guidelines.

The Cyprus team’s core involvement is in WP3, focusing on the optimization of the quality parameters, and WP4, focusing on the development of the prototype software tool. The Cyprus team further explored all relevant information for the development of key input for the completion of its obligations in WP3 and WP4. Moreover, the Cyprus team developed additional material to complement the effort in other tasks related to WP1 and WP2. In detail, Cyprus’ team during the last year, analysed local construction processes through a series of meetings and interviews with UC members; developed the business model of the housing construction process (in Cyprus); identified all key stakeholders and established their roles (for Cyprus); constructed a generic template of the housing construction process (in Cyprus);  recorded more than 80 quality parameters which are widely accepted by the industry based on quality checks executed by the supervising engineering consultants; crystallized the optimization method by identifying the objective function, constraints and input variables; designed and execute a number of experiments concerning optimisation of quality; authored a market research report of currently available software, collected the majority of the essential software requirements; modelled this requirements in the form of entity relationship diagram and created data flow diagrams; designed and developed a software tool for the quality assurance of housing construction projects in real time.

Regarding WP5, dissemination activities, Cyprus Team designed and published the project’s website; prepared a press release that was posted in three (3) newspapers; published two (2) scientific papers and presented their content in two (2) different scientific conferences; posted a scientific article in the monthly magazine of Cyprus Scientific and Technical Chamber(ETEK); organised two (2) info days in Cyprus presenting project results in Organised Units and SMEs and prepared an informational leaflet summarizing all the project results.

  1. 2007 – 2009: FP6, European Commission. Total Funding: € 1,000,000.

Title: Promotion and Consolidation of all RTD activities for renewable distributed generation technologies in the Mediterranean region, DISTRES, FP6-2004-INCO-MPC-3
Role: Frederick Project and Scientific Coordinator

Project Partners:
(a) Electricity Authority of Cyprus (EAC) (Coordinator) (Cyprus),
(b) Universitaet St. Gallen (HSG), (Switzerland)
(c) Instituto Superior de Engenharia de Lisboa (ISEL), (Portugal)
(d) Institute of Communication and Computer Systems, National Technical University of Athens, (ICCS/ NTUA), (Greece)
(e) Frederick Institute of Technology, (FIT), (Cyprus)
(f) Copenhagen Business School, (CBS), (Denmark)
(g) Technofi, (France)
(h) Energy Consulting Network (ECNet), (Denmark)
(i) Hystore Technologies Ltd. (Hystore), (Cyprus)
(j) Organization for Energy Planning, (OEP), (Egypt)
(k) Renewable Energy Development Centre, CDER (Algeria)
(l) National Agency for the Promotion and Rational Utilisation of Energy, (APRUE), (Algeria)
(m) Palestinian Energy & Environment Research Center, (PEC), (Palestine)
(n) Centre of Renewable Energy Development, CDER (Morocco)
(o) Cyprus Energy Regulatory Authority, (CERA), (Cyprus)
(p) Centre of Renewable Energy Sources, (CRES), (Greece)
(q) Lebanese Association for the Management of Energy & Environment, (ALMEE), (Lebanon)
(r) Cyprus International Institute for the Environment and Public Health in association with Harvard School of Public Health (CII-Harvard), (Cyprus)
(s) New & Renewable Energy Authority, (NREA), (Egypt)


The overall goal of the DISTRES co-ordination action project was to exchange and disseminate good practice developed in the field of renewable energy sources distributed generation (RES-DG) technologies by isolated research activities and perform studies and/or analyses for the Mediterranean needs. DISTRES was a three year co-ordination action project. Since solar potential is an abundant commodity in the Mediterranean region the area of interest of DISTRES will be primarily on the electricity produced from solar energy (photovoltaic and/or solar thermal concentrating systems) from DG systems. DISTRES specific scientific and technological objectives may be summarised as (a) to co-ordinate RTD projects in RES-DG technologies, (b) to promote the electricity generation from solar energy, photovoltaic (PV) systems and solar thermal systems, paving the way for pilot systems and products, (c) to produce capacity building methodologies and (d) to disseminate the results as widely as possible in the Mediterranean countries and in the EU. DISTRES work program was organised into five integrated work-packages (WP). Three of these WPs contain review work and workshops organisation, whilst the fourth WP covers capacity building and dissemination including a conference organisation. The last WP concerns the project management and the coordination of DISTRES activities. The consortium set-up had participants from 11 countries, 6 from within Europe, plus Mediterranean partners from Algeria, Morocco, Egypt, Lebanon and Palestine. DISTRES provides the opportunity for the EU to establish clear leadership in the area of RES-DG research efforts on solar thermal and PV systems.

  1. 2010 – 2011: CORNET II/0809/01. (Cyprus Participation: Research Promotion Foundation). Total Funding: around €1,000,000.  

Title: Increase of the passive safety of cars for the protection of pedestrians by Crash Resistant Adhesive Bonding of attachments on LACquered Surfaces (CRAB LACS)
Role: Principal Investigator in economic analysis of alternative adhesive bonding approaches

Project Partners:


Increase of the passive safety of cars for the protection of pedestrians by Crash Resistant Adhesive Bonding of attachments on Lacquered Surfaces (CRABLacS)

Three research institutes of two European Community countries (Germany and Cyprus) participate in this collaborative programme and are supported by two national Associations in each country, the German Association of Welding and allied Processes (DVS) and the Cyprus Association of Panel Beaters (P.O.V.E.K). The collaborative project is financed within the 8th Joint CORNET Call for Trans-national Collective Research Project Proposals by the German Federation of Industrial Research Associations (AiF) and the Cyprus Research Promotion foundation (RPF). The research project is performed in collaboration of the Institute of Joining and Welding (ifs) at the Technische Universität Braunschweig, the Laser Zentrum Hannover (LZH) and the Frederick Research Center (FRC) with the support of an SME users’ committee.

The aim of the project is to identify how the process sequence of body lacquering may affect the properties of adhesions and to develop a technology which provides for the process and crash security of attachments on lacquered body surfaces. For this purpose suitable pre-treatment methods and processes should be developed in order to enable the rapid hardening of adhesives without changing the properties of lacquered surfaces. This can be achieved by the formation of the qualified consortium based on the available expertise in the area of adhesive bonding and vehicle crashworthiness.

The research project should finally improve the knowledge of the behaviour of adhesive joints of lacquered components especially during impact so that light weight construction on road vehicles can be realised by concurrently providing the necessary safety. In addition to that the achieved results within the project work should allow the development of optimised adhesive bonds both in the automotive body-in-white manufacturing and for the vehicle body repairs.

  1. 2010 – 2012:  Research Promotion Foundation (CORNET). Total Funding: €1,592,602.

Title: Food Packaging Material for High Pressure Treatment (HiPP).
Role: Project Coordinator (Cyprus Consortium)

Project Partners:
(a) Research Association of the German Food Industry (Germany),
(b) German Institute of Food Technology (Germany),
(c) Austrian Research Institute for Chemistry and Technology (Austria),
(d) TECHforTASTE (Austria),
(e) Packaging, Transport and Logistics Research Center (Spain),
(f) Belgian Packaging Institute (Belgium/Flanders),
(g) Frederick Research Center (Cyprus),
(h) Cyprus Association for Quality (Cyprus).
Cyprus SMEs:
(a) FoodLab Ltd,
(b) Gemanalysis,
(c) Lefkonitziatis Dairy Products Ltd,
(d) Kouroushis Ltd,
(e) Keses Dairy Products Ltd

Increasing consumer demand for more secure and shelf-stable products has prompted the development of new physical treatments. High Pressure Processing (HiPP) is a way of processing food without using heat. This is a non-thermal technology using pressures up to 800 MPa for a variable time, to extend shelf life of the food products. It has the potential to produce high-quality, fresh, nutritious, safe-to-eat foods without using chemical preservatives. Although there are numerous other interesting features, the major task of high pressure application in food industry is still the extension of shelf-life or the elimination of bacterial or viral pathogens.

This research project develops new packaging solutions for high pressure treatment (HPT) for different kinds of food. Interactions between packaging, food and HPT will be investigated. Expected results are applicable solutions for innovative food products meeting the functional and economical needs of the companies. In particular, research work has been grouped into the following work-packages:

Project consortium consists of ten (10) partners from six (6) different European Countries. At the core of the consortium are four research institutions with extensive and long established expertise in the food technology field. The industrial management research group at FRC leads WP 6, dealing with economic feasibility and technology assessment of the new HiPP technology, whereas contributions will also be done at WP 4. Cyprus team consists further of the Cyprus association for Quality and five SMEs in the wider food technology sector. Considerable dissemination activities have been scheduled to ensure effective technology penetration to the Nation.

  1. 2010 – 2012:  Research Promotion Foundation. Total Funding: €146,689.

Title: A structured approach development for Cyprus’ offshore aquaculture mooring requirements investigation and mooring scenario development.
Role: Project Coordinator.

Project Partners:
(a) Frederick Research Centre (Coordinator) (Cyprus),
(b) University of New Hampshire (USA),
(c) Seawave Fisheries (Cyprus).

In recent years, one in three offshore aquaculture companies in Cyprus suffered severe losses and ceased operations due to environmental conditions. This accident rate is excessively high when compared to Northern European offshore aquaculture industry. Thus, the aim of this research proposal was to develop a structured approach for Cyprus’ offshore aquaculture mooring requirements investigation and mooring scenario development.

To meet this aim a consortium of four organisations has been setup, consisting of a Cypriot research performer, an overseas research performer, world leader in the field of offshore aquaculture mooring investigation and design, a Cypriot aquaculture company and a Cypriot aquaculture marine research laboratory.   

The general objectives of this project proposal can be identified into the following: (a) achieve state of the art engineering applications utilisation in mooring requirements’ investigation and subsequently mooring design, (b) achieve technology transfer in Cyprus’ offshore aquaculture industry, improving breeding site design and operation, (c) promote cooperation of Cyprus’ offshore aquaculture industry and Research and Technological Development (RTD) performers, improving the Industry’s competitiveness and last but not least (d) promote cooperation between Cyprus’ RTD performers and overseas RTD performers, world leaders in the specific field.         

The scientific and technological objectives of this research project proposal can be identified into the following: (a) identify environmental loading parameters, influencing offshore aquaculture mooring system behaviour and propose appropriate monitoring hardware/ software, (b) monitor these environmental loading parameters in Cyprus’ offshore aquaculture breeding sites and develop a list of requirements for respective mooring grids, (c) perform a state-of-the-art review of alternative mooring scenarios available and their respective merits, (d) perform numerical analysis of candidate mooring scenarios and predict their structural integrity under extreme weather conditions, and finally (e) perform a cost-benefit analysis regarding alternative mooring scenarios and their respective merits under Cyprus’ offshore environment operating requirements.

  1. 2007 – 2009: Research Promotion Foundation. Total Funding: €162,300.

Title: Operational models for process optimisation in Cyprus’ fish farming industry, ΤΕΧΝΟΪΧΘΥΣ, ΔΕΣΜΗ 2006.
Role: Consortium Scientific Coordinator.

Project Partners:
(a) Frederick Research Centre (Coordinator) (Cyprus),
(b) National Technical University of Athens (Greece),
(c) Seawave Fisheries (Cyprus).

“ΤΕΧΝΟΪΧΘΥΣ” research project (ΝΕΠΡΟ/0506/03) aims to optimize the processes involved in Cyprus offshore aquaculture units. This was achieved by developing associated operational models and utilizing cutting edge underwater digital image processing technology to collect and analyse relevant input data. Duration of this project was twenty-four (24) months and it was partially funded by the Cyprus Research Promotion Foundation under the scheme for ‘Development of new Industrial Products and Processes’.  

The main general objectives of this project can be identified in:

The specific research objectives of this project can be identified in:

“ΤΕΧΝΟΪΧΘΥΣ” research project is structured around five work packages. The first work package involves preliminary work. This involves: (a) production process simulation and (b) preliminary food-conversion-ratio (FCR) estimation. The second work package involves (a) model development, (b) model validation, and (c) parametric analysis scenario valuation. The third work package relates to the data collection/ data analysis system. It involves (a) selection, evaluation and purchase of necessary equipment, (b) design and construction of an auxiliary device to facilitate data collection, (c) algorithm development to electronically recognize cultured fish visual pattern, and (d) algorithm development to estimate average weight.  The fourth work package involves system commissioning to the end user. Finally, the last work package (WP 5) involves results dissemination.    

The consortium supporting this research project comprises of an SME operating in the offshore aquaculture sector, a Cyprus RTD performer and a Greek RTD performer, namely, ‘Seawave Fisheries Ltd’, Frederick Institute of Technology (FIT), and National Technical University of Athens (NTUA).        

  1. 2011 – 2013: Research Promotion Foundation. Total Funding: €192,846.

Title: Development of an innovative, forced reculation, high efficiency, solar heating system to operate autonomously without electricity.
Role: Frederick Team Scientific Coordinator.

Project Partners:
(a) TheoHalko Solar Energy Ltd (Coordinator) (Cyprus),
(b) CNE Technology Ltd (Cyprus),
(c) ΑΚΜΩΝ (Cyprus),
(d) Frederick Research Centre (Cyprus),
(e) ΔΗΜΟΚΡΗΤΟΣ (Greece).


The manufacturer of solar systems THEOHALKO (HO) is a dynamic Cyprus enterprise, which under this project aimed to: (a) design and develop of a new autonomous thermal solar system, and (b) substantially upgrade existing processes and production methods by using modern technologies and simulation software. The new product is be characterized by: (a) creating a new solar thermal collector possessing high performance and reliability, (b) the substantial upgrading of the storage tank by using intelligent electronic controller and use of new insulation materials with low thermal conductivity, (c) autonomy in operation without requiring connection to the electricity network, and (d) low aesthetic charge to storage tank situated in a lower altitude position and at a distance from the solar collectors. THEOHALKO utilizes the innovative new products to the maximum extent and is expected to significantly increase its annual sales.

Research activities were implemented together with the Host Organisation (HO), by the Technological Center CNE with experience in the design and development of prototype systems and electronic controllers and two research bodies ( PA2: AKMON and PA3: Frederick Research Center) specializing in the design and engineering economics/ production planning respectively. Expertise also was offered by an individual expert (Dr. Vassilios Belessioti), specializing in issues of solar water heaters.

The main activities implemented related to the “zero base” energy collector design possessing high performance and reliability, proposing specific scenarios of which HO was called to choose the best. The selection was made after experimental collectors were designed and built and after these were checked with respect to their performance in a specialized laboratory. In addition, for the selection, simulation results and cost estimates were taken into account of the proposed production processes.

Upgrading the storage tank was achieved by selecting a suitable electronic controller and intelligent scheduling with settings for example winter, holiday, discharge, low temperature etc, and new insulation materials were tested like aerogels with thermal conductivity significantly lower than the polyurethane. The target for full autonomy of the storage tank from the collector area without electricity consumption was achieved through detailed design and construction of autonomous water circulation system using a compact photovoltaic generator online with new type DC circulators and appropriate electronic devices. Then, the assembly was completed and extensive functional testing was undertaken with respect to control the energy gain of the new integrated product coupled with its manual production, meeting the requirements of the European Certification Scheme “Solar Keymark”.